Unit 1 Cells and Systems

Chapter 3 The immune system protects the human body.

3.2 Disorders of the Immune System

3.2 Disorders of the Immune System pg.112

This section on the disorders of the immune system explains what the deadly results are when the Immune System malfunctions. It also explains that the effects on the malfunction could range from minor irritations to life threatening diseases. There are two subheadings which are Allergy and AIDS. These two subtitles are named after immune system disorders that could kill you. The Allergy section tells about what an allergy is, what substances that could cause allergies, the common symptoms, and how to temporarily prevent the allergies of histamine. The AIDS section just mainly describes what AIDS is and how it is caused. It also elaborates on statistics for AIDS and explains what HIV has to do with AIDS. It also elaborates on how hard it is to find a cure and that there has been no breakthroughs in discovery. It also talks about how there is several types viruses. To learn more, read about it on pages 112-114.

1) What are two common disorders of the Immune System? Then list some autoimmune diseases.
Allergies and AIDS/sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis

2) What is an allergy?
an unusually high sensitivity to some substance

3) Define allergen.
substance that causes an allergic reaction

4) What are the common symptoms of allergies?
runny nose and watery eyes

5) Histamine is_?
chemical that body releases when you have an injury or need to fight invaders such as allergens

6) What do people take to prevent them?
antihistamine drugs

7) What is the effect of the above answer?
reduce symptoms caused by release of histamine, does not cure allergy

8) Define anaphylacitc shock.
severe allergic reaction caused by exposure to highly allergic allergens

9) What can this result in?
can result in swelling, breathing difficulty, sometimes death

10) What does an adrenaline autoinjector do?
automatically delivers adrenaline ---> reduces effects of allergic reaction

11)What is AIDS and what does it lead to?
infection of immue system, leades to health complications and often death

12) Give some statistics of the deaths of people worldwide and how many people are currently affected so far.
11 million people worldwide died, 40 million people affected

13) What is AIDS caused by? Define.
HIV, powerful pathogen--->attacks immune systen itself, can destroy by infecting helper T cells. other pathogens or antigens enter body, unable to activate killer T or B cells. Result: can die from other less serious infections, eg. pnuemonia

14) How is HIV transmitted? List 2 possibilities.
1. having sex with infected HIV person without using condom
2. sharing needles contaminated with infected blood

15) Is there a cure for HIV and AIDS as of now?
No, developing a vaccine is very difficult

16) Why is it difficult to develop a vaccine to prevent HIV?
HIV keeps changing structure slightly, hard to identify antigens on virus

17) About how long would an affected person of HIV live?
4-10 years